The following model shows how these structural members can be combined together to

create a custom home with an open hip roof.





Fig. 215 - Custom home

with open hip roof


(scale visualization model)

click image to enlarge



Most public, commercial, and industrial buildings can classified into three main categories-

wall bearing, skeletal, and long span structures.


Wall bearing construction


Wall bearing construction is one of the oldest and most common building methods used.

Exterior and interior masonry walls support structural members like beams and joists that

carry the building's floors and roof.  Its use is limited to low profile buildings up to several

stories high.





Fig. 216 - Wall bearing



detail of truss joist roof  ►

(scale visualization model)

click image to enlarge


Historically, wall bearing construction was used to build some of the largest structures then

known.  As mentioned previously, the Romans overcame the interior space limitations of

the classical post and lintel system by using arched, vaulted, or domed roof designs.  These

massive superstructures exerted a considerable outward thrusting force on the perimeter

walls supporting them.  Consequently, bearing walls were very thick to keep from being

tipped over from the roof load.  The thickness of the walls was not necessary to resist the

compressive stresses exerted by the roof load since, as stated before, masonry, such as

stone, brick, or concrete has very high compressive strength.  However excessive thrusting

forces bearing on top of the wall can cause the wall to become unstable over time.  This is

due to the fact that masonry has a relatively high modulus of elasticity.  So the eccentricity,

or unbalance, of the thrusting load of the roof will cause the outside of the wall to shrink in

compression and the inside of the wall to expand in tension. In reaction the wall begins to


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Page 128 - Building stability - Wall bearing construction

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